Publications are shown in reverse chronological order. Students that I supervised are marked in bolt font.

**Observing supermassive black holes in virtual reality**DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40668-018-0023-7

Publication date: 19 November 2018

Authors: J. Davelaar, T. Bronzwaer,

**D. Kok**, Z. Younsi, M. Mościbrodzka and H. Falcke

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^{∘}(i.e., 4

*π*steradian) general-relativistic ray-tracing and radiative transfer calculations of accreting supermassive black holes. We perform state-of-the-art three-dimensional general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations using the BHAC code, subsequently post-processing this data with the radiative transfer code RAPTOR. All relativistic and general-relativistic effects, such as Doppler boosting and gravitational redshift, as well as geometrical effects due to the local gravitational field and the observer’s changing position and state of motion, are therefore calculated self-consistently. Synthetic images at four astronomically-relevant observing frequencies are generated from the perspective of an observer with a full 360

^{∘}view inside the accretion flow, who is advected with the flow as it evolves. As an example we calculated images based on recent best-fit models of observations of Sagittarius A*. These images are combined to generate a complete 360

^{∘}Virtual Reality movie of the surrounding environment of the black hole and its event horizon. Our approach also enables the calculation of the local luminosity received at a given fluid element in the accretion flow, providing important applications in, e.g., radiation feedback calculations onto black hole accretion flows. In addition to scientific applications, the 360

^{∘}Virtual Reality movies we present also represent a new medium through which to interactively communicate black hole physics to a wider audience, serving as a powerful educational tool.

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**RAPTOR-I. Time-dependent radiative transfer in arbitrary spacetimes**DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201732149

Publication date: 15 May 2018

Authors: T. Bronzwaer, J. Davelaar, Z. Younsi, M. Mościbrodzka, H. Falcke, M. Kramer and L. Rezzolla

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*Context.*Observational efforts to image the immediate environment of a black hole at the scale of the event horizon benefit from the development of efficient imaging codes that are capable of producing synthetic data, which may be compared with observational data.

*Aims.*We aim to present RAPTOR, a new public code that produces accurate images, animations, and spectra of relativistic plasmas in strong gravity by numerically integrating the equations of motion of light rays and performing time-dependent radiative transfer calculations along the rays. The code is compatible with any analytical or numerical spacetime. It is hardware-agnostic and may be compiled and run both on GPUs and CPUs.

*Methods.*We describe the algorithms used in RAPTOR and test the code’s performance. We have performed a detailed comparison of RAPTOR output with that of other radiative-transfer codes and demonstrate convergence of the results. We then applied RAPTOR to study accretion models of supermassive black holes, performing time-dependent radiative transfer through general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamical (GRMHD) simulations and investigating the expected observational differences between the so-called fast-light and slow-light paradigms.

*Results.*Using RAPTOR to produce synthetic images and light curves of a GRMHD model of an accreting black hole, we find that the relative difference between fast-light and slow-light light curves is less than 5%. Using two distinct radiative-transfer codes to process the same data, we find integrated flux densities with a relative difference less than 0.01%.

*Conclusions.*For two-dimensional GRMHD models, such as those examined in this paper, the fast-light approximation suffices as long as errors of a few percent are acceptable. The convergence of the results of two different codes demonstrates that they are, at a minimum, consistent.

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**General relativistic magnetohydrodynamical ****κ****-jet models for Sagittarius A***DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201732025

Publication date: 16 April 2018

Authors: J. Davelaar, M. Mościbrodzka, T. Bronzwaer and H. Falcke

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*Context.*The observed spectral energy distribution of an accreting supermassive black hole typically forms a power-law spectrum in the near infrared (NIR) and optical wavelengths, that may be interpreted as a signature of accelerated electrons along the jet. However, the details of acceleration remain uncertain.

*Aim.*In this paper, we study the radiative properties of jets produced in axisymmetric general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) simulations of hot accretion flows onto underluminous supermassive black holes both numerically and semi-analytically, with the aim of investigating the differences between models with and without accelerated electrons inside the jet.

*Methods.*We assume that electrons are accelerated in the jet regions of our GRMHD simulation. To model them, we modify the electrons’ distribution function in the jet regions from a purely relativistic thermal distribution to a combination of a relativistic thermal distribution and the

*κ*-distribution function (the

*κ*-distribution function is itself a combination of a relativistic thermal and a non-thermal power-law distribution, and thus it describes accelerated electrons). Inside the disk, we assume a thermal distribution for the electrons. In order to resolve the particle acceleration regions in the GRMHD simulations, we use a coordinate grid that is optimized for modeling jets. We calculate jet spectra and synchrotron maps by using the ray tracing code RAPTOR, and compare the synthetic observations to observations of Sgr A*. Finally, we compare numerical models of jets to semi-analytical ones.

*Results.*We find that in the

*κ*-jet models, the radio-emitting region size, radio flux, and spectral index in NIR/optical bands increase for decreasing values of the

*κ*parameter, which corresponds to a larger amount of accelerated electrons. This is in agreement with analytical predictions. In our models, the size of the emission region depends roughly linearly on the observed wavelength

*λ*, independently of the assumed distribution function. The model with

*κ*= 3.5,

*η*

_{acc}= 5–10% (the percentage of electrons that are accelerated), and observing angle

*i*= 30° fits the observed Sgr A* emission in the flaring state from the radio to the NIR/optical regimes, while

*κ*= 3.5,

*η*

_{acc}< 1%, and observing angle

*i*= 30° fit the upper limits in quiescence. At this point, our models (including the purely thermal ones) cannot reproduce the observed source sizes accurately, which is probably due to the assumption of axisymmetry in our GRMHD simulations. The

*κ*-jet models naturally recover the observed nearly-flat radio spectrum of Sgr A* without invoking the somewhat artificial isothermal jet model that was suggested earlier.

*Conclusions.*From our model fits we conclude that between 5% and 10% of the electrons inside the jet of Sgr A* are accelerated into a

*κ*distribution function when Sgr A* is flaring. In quiescence, we match the NIR upper limits when this percentage is <1%.

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**Faraday rotation in GRMHD simulations of the jet launching zone of M87**

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx587

Publication date: 28 March 2017

Authors: M. Mościbrodzka, J. Dexter, J. Davelaar, H. Falcke

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^{−4}M

_{⊙}yr

^{−1}. All jet-dominated models produce much higher RMs for inclination angles

*i*≳ 30°, where the line of sight passes through the accretion flow, thereby providing independent constraints on the viewing geometry of the M87 jet.

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**BlackHoleCam: Fundamental physics of the galactic center**

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218271817300014

Publication date: 18 August 2016

Authors: C. Goddi, H. Falcke, M. Kramer, L. Rezzolla, C. Brinkerink, T. Bronzwaer, J. R. J. Davelaar, R. Deane, M. De Laurentis, G. Desvignes, R. P. Eatough, F. Eisenhauer, R. Fraga-Encinas, C. M. Fromm, S. Gillessen, A. Grenzebach, S. Issaoun, M. Janßen, R. Konoplya, T. P. Krichbaum, R. Laing, K. Liu, R.-S. Lu, Y. Mizuno, M. Moscibrodzka, C. Müller, H. Olivares, O. Pfuhl, O. Porth, F. Roelofs, E. Ros, K. Schuster, R. Tilanus, P. Torne, I. van Bemmel, H. J. van Langevelde, N. Wex, Z. Younsi and A. Zhidenko.

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*BlackHoleCam*project exploits the synergy between these three different techniques and contributes directly to them at different levels. These efforts will eventually enable us to measure fundamental BH parameters (mass, spin, and quadrupole moment) with sufficiently high precision to provide fundamental tests of GR (e.g. testing the no-hair theorem) and probe the spacetime around a BH in any metric theory of gravity. Here, we review our current knowledge of the physical properties of Sgr A* as well as the current status of such experimental efforts towards imaging the event horizon, measuring stellar orbits, and timing pulsars around Sgr A*. We conclude that the Galactic center provides a unique fundamental-physics laboratory for experimental tests of BH accretion and theories of gravity in their most extreme limits.

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